Technical and vocational training is a component of level in secondary education and is directed on preparation of the qualified experts of technical and serving work in the basic directions of socially useful professional work.
Depending on the maintenance of the program and a skill level of preparation students of the technical and vocational training program share on curriculums:
1) technical and the vocational training providing a professional training by mass trades of technical both serving work and assignment trained reached level of professional qualification (the category, a class) by a concrete trade;
2) technical and the vocational training providing mastering by more difficult (adjacent) trades, specialties and practical skills of performance of works of technical and serving work in all branches of the economy, connected with high technologies and professional work and assignment trained the raised level of professional qualification on a concrete specialty;
3) technical and the vocational training providing preparation of highly skilled experts of technical work, their retraining and improvement of professional skill.
Term of development of professional curriculums after professional (except medicine specialities) makes formations:
on the basis of the general secondary education not less than two years,
on the basis of technical and vocational training - not less than one year.
The maintenance of professional curriculums after professional formations provides studying of the professional, socially-humanitarian and natural-science disciplines integrated with professional curriculums of 1-2 courses of higher education, and on termination of training - assignment of qualification of the younger expert of serving and administrative work.
Professional and technical, after professional formation can be received in professional lycées, vocational schools, colleges which can be state and private.
The system professional and technical education is presented by such levels, as:
1) initial vocational education;
2) average vocational education.
Initial vocational education is got at vocational schools and professional lycees on the basis of the basic general education (9 classes) and directed on preparation of workers of skilled work (the workers serving) in various directions of labor activity. Reception of initial vocational training is combined with reception of the average general education..
Initial vocational education by separate trades can be got and on the basis of the average general education (after 11 classes) with the reduced terms of training.
The organizations of initial vocational education give to all citizens of Republic Kazakhstan equal possibilities in acquisition of a trade, a speciality and qualification according to their interests, abilities, a state of health.
Vocational training can be carried out directly on manufacture, in industrial practice industrial complexes, in the educational centers, on courses and in other industrial practice structures of preparation of workers, in the presence of the license for the right of realization of educational activity.
The maintenance of educational programs by trades, standard terms of their development are defined by the state obligatory standards of formation and realized according to working curricula and the programs developed by the organizations of initial vocational training.
Preparation of qualified technical personnel and serving work, their retraining and improvement of professional skill in the organizations of initial vocational training are carried out by trades (specialities) and groups of the trades defined by educational institution together with employers, a placement service and personally by citizens.
In the organizations of initial vocational training it is possible to get education on internal, evening, remote mode of study in the state and Russian languages.
Branches, courses of improvement of qualification and re-trainings of personnel, evening (replaceable) branches (group) on groups of trades, educational economy, ranges and other structural divisions can be created.
In service training is carried out in industrial practice workshops, laboratories, on ranges, in educational economy of educational institutions, on student's places of building objects, fields, farms, the enterprises-customers, i.e. employers.
In the course of in service training, and also during non-learning time the organization of release industrial and agricultural production, consumer goods is provided.
Professional practice by a trade is spent in the profile organizations (the enterprises, establishments).
Average vocational education is got in the organizations of average vocational training (colleges, schools) on the basis of the core of the general, average general and initial vocational training on a competitive basis and directed on preparation of experts with average vocational training
The citizens having the average general education, initial vocational training on related specialties, can receive average vocational training under the reduced, accelerated programs.
In the organizations of average vocational training training is carried out in internal, correspondence, evening, remote modes of study, and also external.
The reception order in the organization of average vocational training is established according to Typical rules of reception on training in the organizations of formation realizing professional curriculums technical and vocational training, confirmed by the order of the Minister of Education and Science of Republic Kazakhstan from November, 29th, 2007 № 587.
Professional practice by a trade is spent in the profile organizations (the enterprises, establishments).
Professional and technical education in figures
For January, 1st, 2011 in Kazakhstan 894 educational institutions professional and technical education function. A professional training is carried out on 185 specialties and 495 qualifications.
The financing volume makes 52,9 billion tenge (6,6 % from financing of all education system of republic). Thus in educational institutions technical and vocational training 13,7 % from total number of the trained are trained.
Table 1. Quantity of students in department technical and the software
Quantity of students (all it is trained), the people
In state department technical and the software, the person
In % from a total number
Private department technical and the software, foreheads
In % from a total number
Source: Agency RK on the statistician
Annually the state order (educational grants) for a professional training with professional and technical education increases. Training cost on the average on republic on 1st trained at the expense of the state order in 2010 has made: in professional lycées – 203,3 thousand tenge; in colleges – 191,1 thousand tenge.
In 2010 in educational institutions technical and vocational training it is accepted 216,8 thousand people, including under the state order (from the republican and local budget) 90,6 thousand people
In system technical and vocational training work 45 thousand engineering-pedagogical workers including 5,7 thousand masters of in service training.
Perspectives of development of the system of technical and vocational education
The state pays a lot of attention to the development of the system of technical and vocational education, popularization of professions and specialties, that are taught by organizations of technical and vocational education.
NationalCouncilfordevelopmentoftechnicalandvocationaleducationandtrainingofstaffundertheGovernment of the Republic of Kazakhstan was created by the Decree of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan dated August 11, 2009 № 1211.
Memorandum about creation of the Fund of support of technical and vocational education was sighed between Ministry of Education and Science, energetic and mineral resources of the Republic of Kazakhstan and Association of legal entities “National economic chamber of Kazakhstan “Union “Atameken” in November 2009.
Theimportantprojectswithleadinginternationalorganizationsarerealizingfor studying and intergration of the latest golobal experience:
With Germal society of technical assistance – for working out curriculums, module programs;
With European commission – for development of social partnership;
WiththeCenterofeducationandadvancedtraining (RKK, Norway) – for assistance in staff training and retraining in oil and gas field;
WithInVent (Germany) – for advanced training for teachers and masters of vocational training;
With British Council – for ensuring of quality of traning and job placement of graduates;
With European Fund of Education – for implementation of the development methodology of programs om the basis of competence for vocational education and development of its potential in Kazakhstan, creation of occupational standards in the sector of tourism, studying of the experience of implementation of European qualification framework.
24 leading education establishments of the system of technical and vocational education sighed agreement on cooperation with worldwide renowned colleges of Great Britain, including 14 colleges with Cmabrigereginal college.
Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan signed two agreements – intension about cooperation in the filed of technical and vocational education between Concord consulting group «UCPMI» (France) and between GEMCO INTERNATIONAL BV, University of applies sciences FONTYS (Holland).
The system of technical and vocational education of Kazakhstan along with 29 coinurties of Europe became participant of Turinese process in 2010, i.e. participates in international peer reviews, conducted by European Fund of education (Turin, Italy).
The work is done for creation of modern interregional centers for staff training and retraining in more prioritized filed of economics, in which necessary resources, modern equipment, training laboratories, workrooms of general usage will be concentrated on the basis of acting education establishments.
So, the centers were found by the Order of the Minister of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan dated July, 15th 2009 № 345, for staff training in meat and dairy products processing – in Akmolinsk region on the basement of cow college in Katarkol village; in car service in Almaty on the basement of professional lyceum № 6; in metal-working manufacturing in Karaganda on the basement of professional lyceum №15. These and other centers will be funded from local budget, outside funds of subsurface users and other employers, and also from out-of-pocket services.
The construction of following centers is conducted:
1) interregionalcenterof staff training and retraining foroilandgasfieldfor 700 academicplacesinAtyrau;
2) interregionalcenterof staff training and retraining of technical service work for fule and energy field in Ekibastuz;
3) professional lyceums for 800 academci places in Astana and in Shayan village in Baidebek district of South Kazkahstan region for 360 academic places;
4) interregionalcenterfor staff training and retraining oftechnical service work for engineering industry in USt – Kamenogorsk.
IntheframesofrealizationoftheStateprogramofforcingofindustrialinnovativedevelopment for 2010 -2014 the analysis of demand in staff was conducted by state authorities. Generaldemandis 287 thousand people, including for forcing of industrial and innovative development -108 thousand people. Demand in specialists with technical and vocational education is 58,2 thousand people, 543 education establishments of technical and vocational education provide training for those specialists.
For 13 fields of industrial projects and for all regions the maps of staff provision were worked out, basic education establishments for projects were determined to gether with akimats, present times newly opened organizations sighed 61 contracts for staff trainings(for example: «Taraz metallurgical factory», «Electrolytic factory», «Leather industry» and others, the result is 831 persons that were educated and emplyeed).
Enrolment in vocational and technical education establishments
In education organization can be enrolled:
Citizens of the Republic of Kazakhstan, who have basic secondary (basic general), general secondary (secondary general), technical and vocational (primary vocational and secondary vocational), higher (higher vocational) education,
persons of Kazakh nationality, who are not citizens of the Republic of Kazakhstan,
foreign citizens and pesrons with out citizens in order, established by the legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
On the competitive base in accordance with state educational order free technical and vocational education is available for citizens of the Republic of Kazakhstan and persons without citizenship, permanently living in the Republic of Kazakhstan, if the education of this level they get for the first time.
The availability of state educational order for free technical and vocational educations for foreign persons on competitive base isdetermined by international agreements of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
The quota of enrolment is considered in entering education organization for:
1) citizens from number of disabled persons I and II groups, disabled persons from childhood, handicapped children;
2) persons, equated to participants of war and disabled persons from war in benefits and insurance arrangements;
3) citizensfromnumberofvillageyouthforspecialties, determinating social and economic development of a village;
4) personsofKazakhnationality, who are not citizens of the Republic of Kazakhstan;
5) orphansandchildrenwithoutcharge of patients.
Collection of applications for training in education organizations is conducted:
In accordance with academic programs of technical and vocational education, provided training of specialists of middle technicians:
for full-time tuition from the 20th of June to the 20th of August;
for par-time tuition fromthe 20th of June to the 20th of September,
for specialties of art and culture from the 20th of June to the 20th of July;
in accordance with academic programs of technical and vocational education, providing training of staff in massive professions and more complicated (allied) professions
for full-time tuitions from the 20th of June to the 20th of August,
for par-time tuition from the 20th of June to the 20th of September.
The following documents have to be atteached to the application for enrollment:
Original document about education,
Medical certificate № 086-Уform (fordisabledpersonsofІand II groups and disabled persons from childhood –conclusion from medical and social expertise),
4 photopcitruresof 3х4.
Documents, identifyingschool-leaver, arepresentedpersonally, by parents or legal representatives.
Foreigners and persons without citizenship present documents for the right of constant living in the Republic of Kazakhstan with the mark of registratuin at the place of living.
Citizens, presentedcertificateofcomplextestingor certificate of the UNT results, are reliazed from preliminary examinations and are accepted to competition.
Preliminary examinations for applicants in education academic programs of technical and vocational education, providing training of specialists of middle staff, and who have:
Generalsecondary (9 grades), technicalandvocationaleducation, thatisnotrelevanttotheprofileofspecialty, conducted for three subjects (Kazakh language or Russian language, History of Kazakhstan and subject relevant to profile of specialty);
Basicgeneraleducation (11 grades) – for two subjects in the volume of academic programs of basic general education (Kazakh or Russina language and subject relevant to the profile of specialty).
For applicants, entering higher technical schools premilinary examinations are conducted in three subjects in the volume of academic programs of basic general educatuin(Kazakh or Russian language, mathematics and subject relevant to profile of specialty).
Forms of preliminary examinations (examsortesting) are established by education organization, preliminary examinations are passed in Kazakh or Russian languages.
Preliminary examinations for applicants for education academic programs of technical and vocational education, providing training of staff in massive professions and more complicated (applied) professions, are conducted in the form of interview.
Applicantsforeducation organizations in specialties of art and culture are passed special or creative examinations.
Preliminary examinations are conducted for applicants in education academic programs of technical and vocational education, providing training of middle specialists:
Fro full-time tuition from the 1st of August to the 28th of August,
For part-time tuition from the 1st of August to the 25th of September;
For specialties of art and culture for special or creative examinations are conducted from the 21st of July to the 28th of July.
For applicants on the full time tuition in education academic programs of technical and vocational education, providing staff training in massive professions and more complicated (applied) professions, interview is conducted fron the 1st of August to the 28th of August, for part-time tuition from the 1st of August to the 25th of September.
In conducting of preliminary examinations:
1) inform of test the number of test tasks (questions) for each subject 30; correct answer for each test taskisassessedwith1 point; for testing in three subjects it is given 2 hours 15 minutes, and in two subjects - 1 hour 30 minutes; codes of correct answers are hanged out immediately after finishing of testing; the results of testing are updated at the date of its conduction;
2) themarks «3», «4», «5», gotten during premilinary examinations, are trasnlated by admission commission in points in accordance with following scale: mark «3» - 10 points, «4» - 20 points, «5» - 30 points.
For the period of preliminary examinations the appeal commission is created, and applicant, who does not agree with the result of testing or with preliminary examination in subjects, can appeal.
Appeal submits in admission commission within 24 hours after announcement of the results of preliminary examinations and is considered by appeal commission with the participation of applicant.
Enrolment of citizens into edcaution organizations is condicted in accordance with application of citizens on the competitive basis.
Enrolmentinthenumberofstudentsineducationacademicprogramsoftechnicalandvocationaleducation, providing middle staff training, is conductive on competitive basis for full – time tuition from the 25th of August to the 30th of August, for part-time tuition – from the 15th of September to the 30th of September.
Emrolmentinnumberofstudentsineducationacademicprogramsoftechnocalandvocationaleducation, providing affair in massive professions and more complicated (applied) professions, is conducted from the 25th of August to the 30th of August in the basis of selection with counting of marks for profile subjects, identified in documents of education of general secondary or basic secondary education, results of interview. The condition of selection is determined by an education organization.
The competition is conducted:
On the basis of points in certificate of UNT,
On the basis of the points in certificates, issued in accordance with results of preliminary examinations, conducted in the form of complex testing,
On the basis of points (marks), gotten in accordance with results of preliminary examinations of subjects or in the form of test, conducted by an education organization.
In conduction of competition for enrolment the sum of points of three subjects is taken into account, identified in the UNT certificates or complex testing.
The following persons are not accepted for the participation in the competition for enrollment in the number of students, who got:
Less than 20 points from two subjects, for those who have basic general education, for medical specialties – less than 30 points (less than 30 points for three subjects for the enrolment un higher technical schools);
Less than 30 points from three subjects, for those who have general secondary education, for medical specialties – less than 35pints (less than 35 points from three subjects for the enrolment in higher technical schools).
In conduction of competition for enrolment in the number of students, who are the holders of state order for training of staff with technical and vocational education, the following persons have priorities:
1) Person, awarded with the sign “Altyn Belgi”;
2) winners of international contests and scientific competitions in general subjects (awarding with diplomas of the 1st, 2nd and the 3rddegree), republic and international contest of performed sport competitions (awarding with diplomas of the 1st, 2ndandthe 3rddegree), of last three years, the list of which is determined but h authorized body in the field of education, and also winners of the republic contests and scientific competitions in general subjects (awarding with diplomas of the 1st, 2ndandthe 3rddegree) of current year, in case if chosen by them specialty is relevant to the subject of contest, or sport competitions.
In case of equal indictors of conduction of competition for enroment in the number of students with state order the following persons have privilege (in case of availability of confirming documents:
Orphans and children without charge of parents,
Disabledpersonsof I and II groups, persons, equaled to participants of war and disabled persons from war, in benefits and insurance arrangements,
Disabledpersonsfromchildhood, children - handicapts, to whom in accordance with conclusion of medical and social expertise the education in relevant education organization is not resticted,
Persons, whohavedocumentsabouteducation (references, attestats, diplomas) with honors.